Latest activities of group #10 Talk2012-03-06T18:20:31Z<p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/s3/cache%2F42%2Fe2%2F42e25f1188a63b7f76cf000e61885f6d.jpg" alt="What will work" width="371" height="580" /></p> <blockquote> <p>What Will Work:&nbsp;Fighting Climate Change&nbsp;with Renewable Energy,&nbsp;Not Nuclear Power,&nbsp;Kristin Shrader-Frechette,&nbsp;Oxford University Press,&nbsp;&pound;27 .50</p> </blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span>I</span>t is one of the most common stories&nbsp;of mankind, to be repeated time&nbsp;and again: a few greedy individuals&nbsp;make profit at the expense of the populace.&nbsp;Take the financial scandal on&nbsp;Wall Street, speculators and the price&nbsp;of oil at the exchange market, or, in&nbsp;this case, climate change antagonists.&nbsp;Who exactly benefits from polluting the&nbsp;atmosphere? The environment? People?&nbsp;No. It&rsquo;s the utility companies, their&nbsp;stakeholders and their paid spokespersons.&nbsp;Unfortunately, the general public&nbsp;cannot discern between what are scientific&nbsp;facts and what are downright lies.&nbsp;But thanks to Kristin Shrader-Frechette,&nbsp;Professor at the Department of Biological&nbsp;Sciences and Department of Philosophy&nbsp;at the University of Notre Dame we&nbsp;now learn why some deny that global&nbsp;warming is happening. We learn what&nbsp;is really at stake when we build new&nbsp;nuclear power plants. We learn that&nbsp;nuclear fission is not the answer to climate&nbsp;change, contrary to what many&nbsp;leaders, including the Obama administration,&nbsp;tell the public. With three&nbsp;post-docs in her pockets, biology, economics&nbsp;and hydrogeology, Shrader-&nbsp;Frechette takes the reader through the&nbsp;common pro-nuclear arguments and&nbsp;refutes them by relying on scientific&nbsp;evidence, logic and behind-the-scene&nbsp;investigations. Her powerful arguments&nbsp;are well thought through and&nbsp;quite easy to understand. One danger of&nbsp;reading the book is that it can infuriate&nbsp;the reader. As she demystifies the entire&nbsp;nuclear energy agenda, taking the&nbsp;reader through its scientific, medical,&nbsp;economic and ethical applications, the&nbsp;author reveals what must be today&rsquo;s biggest&nbsp;scandal. Just consider some of her &nbsp;arguments. Reducing the carbon footprint&nbsp;by way of nuclear fission makes&nbsp;no sense because when one counts all&nbsp;14 cycles of a nuclear power plant, it is&nbsp;evident that its creation, maintenance&nbsp;and dismantling require more energy&nbsp;than the nuclear reactor will generate in&nbsp;its lifetime. Furthermore, civil nuclear&nbsp;proliferation increases the chances&nbsp;of terrorist attack: it requires very little&nbsp;plutonium to make weapons, and&nbsp;already nuclear storage sites worldwide&nbsp;cannot explain how some plutonium&nbsp;has gone missing from their stocks. Or,&nbsp;those who live close to a &ldquo;normally&rdquo;&nbsp;functioning nuclear reactor are more at&nbsp;risk of cancer, especially children, who&nbsp;are 38 times as vulnerable to radioactivity&nbsp;as adults. Clearly, nuclear power&nbsp;plants are neither efficient nor safe.&nbsp;Yet last month the Obama administration&nbsp;authorized the creation of two&nbsp;nuclear power plants, costing the taxpayers&nbsp;$14 billion. But why do leaders&nbsp;pursue nuclear power as an answer to&nbsp;the energy crisis and energy security&nbsp;despite all the factors against it? Desperate&nbsp;as the situation might seem,&nbsp;the book offers compelling answers&nbsp;and solutions to one of our generation&rsquo;s&nbsp;most pressing issues. Shrader-&nbsp;Frechette&rsquo;s fiery tone is invigorating,&nbsp;and one can only wish for today&rsquo;s leaders&nbsp;to be as conscientious, courageous&nbsp;and honest as she is.</p> <p style="text-align: right;"><span style="color: #888888;">&mdash;J.H.</span></p>Urban Planning is Key2012-03-06T18:16:12Z<p><img src="/s3/cache%2F5a%2F02%2F5a0241ee63aafe799b12e250d93af96d.jpg" alt="URBAN PLANNING" width="402" height="580" /></p> <blockquote> <p>The Very Hungry City:&nbsp;Urban Energy Efficiency&nbsp;and the Economic Fate&nbsp;of Cities,&nbsp;Austin Troy,&nbsp;Yale University Press,&nbsp;&pound;25.00/$28.00/20,00 &euro;</p> </blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span>I</span>n his new book Austin Troy shows&nbsp;how urban environment management&nbsp;is an important component of any solution&nbsp;addressing the energy crisis and&nbsp;climate change. As an associate professor&nbsp;at the University of Vermont and&nbsp;former city Planning Commissioner,&nbsp;the author&rsquo;s obvious passion for urban&nbsp;energy efficiency and his straightforward&nbsp;and conversational writing style makes&nbsp;a somewhat dry topic truly fascinating.&nbsp;The book is sprinkled with the author&rsquo;s&nbsp;pictures and personal anecdotes from&nbsp;field trips that took him across the United&nbsp;States and Europe. The reader thus gains&nbsp;insight into a Scandinavian urban redevelopment&nbsp;project that serves as a role&nbsp;model to the rest of the world or into the&nbsp;house of a Hollywood actor, who decided&nbsp;to turn his house &ldquo;green.&rdquo; A unique and&nbsp;rather clever feature of the book is its&nbsp;mini chapters on the different forms of&nbsp;existing energy and their sustainability,&nbsp;such as tar sands, nuclear fission, biofuels&nbsp;and wind; all to demonstrate to&nbsp;the reader that there is no &ldquo;silver bullet&rdquo;&nbsp;solution and that energy efficiency and&nbsp;energy conservation must absolutely be&nbsp;part of any serious action plan. The first&nbsp;part of the book outlines the energy crisis&nbsp;that cities worldwide are facing while&nbsp;the second part is all about solutions. Yet&nbsp;to the author&rsquo;s credit he does not present&nbsp;the reader with a tedious list that&nbsp;has been regurgitated time and again.&nbsp;Instead, Troy delivers his message by&nbsp;going back to the historical roots of the&nbsp;problem and by using real-life examples,&nbsp;proving that it is possible for very hungry&nbsp;cities to go on a healthy diet.</p> <p style="text-align: right;"><span style="color: #888888;">&mdash;J.H.</span></p>Beyond Words2012-03-06T18:12:34Z<p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/s3/cache%2F46%2F0c%2F460cb2d6aaa26effc4b7a36124db724b.jpg" alt="BEYOND WORKDS" width="379" height="580" /></p> <blockquote> <p>Dignity in Adversity:&nbsp;Human Rights&nbsp;in Troubled Times,&nbsp;Seyla Benhabib,&nbsp;Polity Books, 21,60 &euro;</p> </blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span>N</span>ever has the human rights discourse&nbsp;been so ubiquitous and so&nbsp;contested at the same time. Never has&nbsp;the international human rights regime&nbsp;been so elaborated and so undermined&nbsp;by new discourses and practices emerging&nbsp;in a global order in transition. From&nbsp;human rights violation justified through&nbsp;claims to cultural relativism, restrictive&nbsp;human rights policies based on the principle&nbsp;of state sovereignty, and abuse of&nbsp;human rights discourse to justify military&nbsp;interventionism, it is the very moral&nbsp;and philosophical foundation of the&nbsp;human rights cosmopolitan project that&nbsp;seems to be wavering. Looking beyond&nbsp;the apparent tension between universalism,&nbsp;cultural diversity and state sovereignty,&nbsp;Seyla Benhabib provides us&nbsp;with a rich and complex web of conceptual&nbsp;approaches to see through the&nbsp;global political challenges of our times.&nbsp;Rejecting the fetishization of cultures&nbsp;as ahistorical holistic worldviews, Benhabib&nbsp;insists on the force of &ldquo;communicative&nbsp;freedom&rdquo; which enables peoples&nbsp;to interpret and articulate the universal&nbsp;in concrete contexts of self-governing&nbsp;polities through what she calls &ldquo;democratic&nbsp;iterations&rdquo;. She firmly believes in&nbsp;the often underrated &ldquo;jurisgenerative&nbsp;power&rdquo; of human rights norms which&nbsp;empowers new actors across borders&nbsp;by creating new vocabularies for claimmaking&nbsp;and new channels for mobilization&nbsp;and therefore calls for new forms&nbsp;of democratic participation through&nbsp;transnational discursive communities&nbsp;to accommodate the increasing uncoupling&nbsp;of territoriality, sovereignty, and&nbsp;citizenship. Produced as a collection&nbsp;of essays written between 2006 and&nbsp;2012, the book offers a comprehensive&nbsp;presentation of Benhabib&rsquo;s main philosophical&nbsp;works, which makes it dense&nbsp;reading. With a &ldquo;cosmopolitanism without&nbsp;illusion&rdquo; as a normative agenda,&nbsp;one might regret that so little empirical&nbsp;ground is provided to support the&nbsp;author&rsquo;s pleasantly bold thinking, and&nbsp;that, her own cultural background put&nbsp;aside, there is no encounter with nonwestern&nbsp;classical and modern thought&nbsp;in her otherwise balanced and culturally&nbsp;sensitive analysis.</p> <p style="text-align: right;"><span style="color: #888888;">&ndash;F.G.</span></p>The New Frontier2012-03-06T18:07:58Z<p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/s3/cache%2Ff9%2F70%2Ff9705415ce4654bf034f663529f8b0e7.jpg" alt="The End of Straight Supremacy" width="360" height="541" /></p> <blockquote> <p>The End of Straight&nbsp;Supremacy, Realizing&nbsp;Gay Liberation,&nbsp;Shannon Gilreath,&nbsp;Cambridge University&nbsp;Press, $26.95/&pound;18.99</p> </blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span>S</span>hannon Gilreath writes his new book&nbsp;with a certain fire that is at first sight&nbsp;off-putting. Throughout, Gilreath wavers&nbsp;between alienating not only the hetero&nbsp;community but also the gay community.&nbsp;While admitting that his book is radical&nbsp;and that it will be considered &lsquo;extremist,&rsquo;&nbsp;Gilreath maintains its necessity in&nbsp;pointing to an emergency: Gaynocide&nbsp;&ndash; caused by &lsquo;Heteroarchy&rsquo;. His message&nbsp;is that this pervasive heteroarch renders current equality dialogue victim&nbsp;to its oppression. One can only hope&nbsp;that his radical language does not block&nbsp;the average reader from taking his point&nbsp;seriously &ndash; that seeking equal rights&nbsp;in traditional institutions is not truly&nbsp;seeking equality. Those institutions are&nbsp;laden with gender stereotypes &ndash; based&nbsp;on dominance versus docility &ndash; and the&nbsp;gay community finds itself coerced to&nbsp;act out stale gender norms created long&nbsp;ago by &lsquo;straight&rsquo; men. The End of Straight&nbsp;Supremacy is hashing out a &ldquo;new order&nbsp;in which homosexuality is something&nbsp;other than the absence of heterosexuality&nbsp;and where Gay people are more&nbsp;than counterfactual to straight supremacy.&rdquo;&nbsp;Gilreath&rsquo;s work is as important to&nbsp;the gay community as it is to the hetero&nbsp;community &ndash; calling for an evaluation of&nbsp;the equality movement from all angles. It&nbsp;may not be a book for the faint of heart&nbsp;&ndash; those easily offended by a four letter&nbsp;word beginning with the letter F or by&nbsp;graphic psychoanalysis of raw pornography&nbsp;- but it is likely that Gilreath is hoping&nbsp;this very audience will take a gander&nbsp;at his piece. After recovering from the&nbsp;shock of his radical language, one can&nbsp;admire his smart analysis of hetero-dominance&nbsp;and the dire need to finally reject&nbsp;clinging to the gender binary.</p> <p style="text-align: right;"><span style="color: #888888;">&ndash;M.B.</span></p>Mooncake and Dragon-Whisker Noodles2012-03-06T18:03:16Z<p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/s3/cache%2F05%2F4a%2F054abd66b662a9acbefa039c80657905.jpg" alt="Chinese Food" width="394" height="580" /></p> <blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;">Chinese Food,&nbsp;Liu Junru,&nbsp;Cambridge University&nbsp;Press, &pound;12.99</p> </blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span>D</span>o you know when to eat a mooncake?&nbsp;Dragon-whisker noodles? And&nbsp;that if you show up unexpectedly at the&nbsp;door of a Mongolian tent they will prepare&nbsp;a feast with a whole lamb to welcome&nbsp;you? As millions across the world&nbsp;recently welcomed the year of the&nbsp;Dragon, and China&rsquo;s clout and soft power&nbsp;are reaching today far beyond the former&nbsp;Chinese empire, Liu Junru&rsquo;s book is a mustread&nbsp;for anyone seeking to understand&nbsp;China and its culinary culture and traditions.&nbsp;On a first trip to China, the neophyte&nbsp;will quickly realize how food bears&nbsp;an importance out of the ordinary in&nbsp;Chinese people&rsquo;s daily lives. In a country&nbsp;where the first question people ask&nbsp;each other when they meet is not &ldquo;how&nbsp;are you?&rdquo; but rather &ldquo;have you had your&nbsp;meal already?&rdquo; in-depth knowledge of&nbsp;China&rsquo;s eating and drinking habits is&nbsp;mandatory for businessmen and travelers&nbsp;alike. Liu Junru&rsquo;s book is a true gem; the&nbsp;author navigates comfortably through the&nbsp;vast array of Chinese culinary traditions;&nbsp;the author&rsquo;s writing style is clear, concise&nbsp;and unassuming, in a leisurely way&nbsp;unveiling the secrets of Chinese cuisine,&nbsp;history and cooking techniques, the intricacies&nbsp;of table etiquette, and new trends&nbsp;in eating habits. Liu Junru explores the main&nbsp;eight Chinese culinary traditions and&nbsp;ventures to explain eating habits, taboos&nbsp;and cooking customs of Chinese national&nbsp;minorities. The reader quickly learns the&nbsp;basics in the fine art of mixing the &ldquo;five&nbsp;flavors&rdquo; and skillfully combining food&nbsp;colors to please the eye, and how to&nbsp;guarantee health benefits from the food&nbsp;we eat. Crisp and captivating, this book&nbsp;makes a comprehensive and pleasant&nbsp;read; the perfect travel companion on a&nbsp;long-haul, China-bound flight.</p> <p style="text-align: right;"><span style="color: #888888;">&ndash;I.M.</span></p>Empowerment in Afghanistan2012-03-06T17:59:54Z<p><img src="/s3/cache%2F10%2Fc6%2F10c69c17dd7dcc858e50d63a1d708517.jpg" alt="The Favored Daughter" width="382" height="580" /></p> <blockquote> <p>The Favored Daughter:&nbsp;One Woman&rsquo;s Fight&nbsp;to Lead Afghanistan&nbsp;into the Future,&nbsp;Fawzia Koofi with&nbsp;Nadene Ghouri,&nbsp;Palgrave Macmillan,&nbsp;&pound;16.99/$26.00</p> </blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span>F</span>awzia Koofi&rsquo;s new book gives a rare&nbsp;and gripping insight into the life and&nbsp;reflections of an Afghan woman who&nbsp;fought against all likelihood to become&nbsp;Afghanistan&rsquo;s first female Parliament&nbsp;Speaker. The book&rsquo;s graceful and vivid&nbsp;language allows the reader to become&nbsp;Koofi&rsquo;s shadow, accompanying this brave&nbsp;woman throughout her extraordinary&nbsp;journey. The powerful story begins with&nbsp;her birth to Wakil Abdul Rahman, member&nbsp;of the Afghan Parliament and his&nbsp;second wife. Her father&rsquo;s 19th child with&nbsp;his second wife out of seven, Koofi was&nbsp;left to die because her mother wanted a&nbsp;boy. Nonetheless, Koofi survived thanks&nbsp;to her mother&rsquo;s mercy and remorse. She&nbsp;endured the deaths of her closest family&nbsp;members and survived assassination&nbsp;attempts on her own life. Despite these&nbsp;incredible hardships, Koofi did not lose&nbsp;hope. She found purpose and strength in&nbsp;helping people, especially rural women&nbsp;and children. To read how Koofi, despite&nbsp;all adversity and misfortunes, empowered&nbsp;herself is profoundly inspiring.&nbsp;But the book is not only about Koofi. Its&nbsp;underlying theme is Afghanistan&rsquo;s future.&nbsp;The book confronts the salient question&nbsp;on how to construct a new Afghan identity,&nbsp;one that does not pay tribute to the&nbsp;brutality and inhumanity of the Mujahidin,&nbsp;the Taliban, and the current war on&nbsp;terror, but one that includes the Afghans&rsquo;&nbsp;rich history and culture. Koofi believes in&nbsp;an Afghan identity that is based both on&nbsp;traditions and on human rights, civility&nbsp;and the rule of law. This book comes just&nbsp;at a time when the United States is planning&nbsp;to withdraw its troops. The spellbinding&nbsp;story refocuses the attention of&nbsp;a desensitized world on Afghanistan&rsquo;s&nbsp;potential and future.</p> <p style="text-align: right;"><span style="color: #888888;">&ndash;J.H.</span></p>The Humanitarian With Humour2012-03-06T17:55:24Z<p><img src="/s3/cache%2F3d%2F86%2F3d86bbafbbc2c282e828c1e1d3192b88.jpg" alt="" width="380" height="580" /></p> <blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;">Breaking the Rules:&nbsp;Working for the UN&nbsp;Can Be Fun. And it Can&nbsp;Also Do Some Good&nbsp;Provided One Is Ready&nbsp;to Lie, Fib, Obfuscate&nbsp;and Break All the Rules,&nbsp;Alexander Casella,&nbsp;Tricorne, 30 &euro;</p> </blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span>T</span>racing his life, first as a journalist&nbsp;and then as an agent of the United&nbsp;Nations High Commissioner for Refugees&nbsp;(UNHCR), Alexander Casella brings&nbsp;us back into some of the most relevant&nbsp;events of our contemporary history: the&nbsp;war in Vietnam and the Cold War period.&nbsp;Casella was born in Naples, Italy, but&nbsp;grew up in Geneva where he fled in 1943&nbsp;as a refugee, being the son of a Jewish&nbsp;pianist and choreographer from Prague.&nbsp;He is flattered when someone describes&nbsp;him as &ldquo;the Swiss cynic,&rdquo; when cynicism&nbsp;is interpreted as a lack of trust in&nbsp;the motivation of others and in particular&nbsp;&ldquo;of those who claim to act for selfless&nbsp;or lofty motives.&rdquo; From Hanoi to&nbsp;Beirut and from New York to Bangkok,&nbsp;the author describes his two decades of&nbsp;career on the frontline of humanitarian&nbsp;action in an exceptional narrative style.&nbsp;No one is safe from his critical analysis.&nbsp;Including himself. Self-righteous,&nbsp;dull and careerist characters stand out&nbsp;from the humanitarian world he portrays.&nbsp;His writing is funny, provocative,&nbsp;and full of references to details that can&nbsp;hardly be found anywhere else. Casella&nbsp;tells a story where comedy and tragedy&nbsp;harmoniously alternate, keeping the&nbsp;reader totally fascinated by his incredible&nbsp;life. In the end, despite a picture&nbsp;where mediocracy and lack of accountability&nbsp;seem to rule in the international&nbsp;organizations, the author gives his readers&nbsp;hope, and shows that &ldquo;working for&nbsp;UN can be fun and that something good&nbsp;can still be done if one is ready to lie, fib,&nbsp;obfuscate and break all the rules.&rdquo;</p> <p style="text-align: right;"><span style="color: #888888;">&ndash;N.Z.</span></p>Women Are Not Children2012-03-06T17:51:16Z<p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/s3/cache%2F2d%2Fc3%2F2dc356cd1fc5599b776be8afbf0dbe0b.jpg" alt="on the Frontline" width="384" height="580" /></p> <blockquote> <p>On The Frontlines:&nbsp;Gender, War, And&nbsp;The Post-Conflict&nbsp;Process,&nbsp;Fionnuala N&iacute; Aol&aacute;in,&nbsp;Dina Francesca Haynes&nbsp;and Naomi Cahn,&nbsp;Oxford University Press,&nbsp;&pound;18.99, $29.95</p> </blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span>I</span>n On The Frontlines: Gender, War,&nbsp;And The Post-Conflict Process, Aolain,&nbsp;Haynes and Cahn provide an accessible&nbsp;guide for practitioners to better&nbsp;understand the pervasiveness of gender&nbsp;insensitivity in post-conflict reconstruction.&nbsp;The authors address a wide&nbsp;range of processes from peacekeeping&nbsp;to legal reform and social justice, analyzing&nbsp;the detrimental effects of a lack&nbsp;of gender mainstreaming in each, and&nbsp;proposing ways in which gender analyses&nbsp;can be inserted, ameliorating some&nbsp;of these effects. For the authors, universal&nbsp;post-conflict reconstruction practices&nbsp;leave out the intricacies and dynamics of&nbsp;sex and age, thereby ignoring key stakeholders&nbsp;in the peace process. Categorizing&nbsp;women as victims of the conflict&nbsp;and grouping them alongside children,&nbsp;takes away their agency, disempowering&nbsp;them and leaving them voiceless when,&nbsp;in fact, they have unique perspectives&nbsp;and solutions that must be taken into&nbsp;account. Gender is about women and&nbsp;men, boys and girls, and each grouping&nbsp;has a different perspective from their&nbsp;location in the conflicted society&rsquo;s structure.&nbsp;This means that, for example, rape&nbsp;must be prosecuted as a war crime, and&nbsp;that both men and women must be able&nbsp;to testify to rape and see justice delivered&nbsp;to their rapists. The authors also discuss&nbsp;the importation of deleterious gendered&nbsp;practices by the international community,&nbsp;oftentimes through peacekeepers&nbsp;coming from their own gender-stratified&nbsp;societies. The book is comprehensive&nbsp;and detailed, providing practical explanations&nbsp;for why gender awareness and&nbsp;sensitivity must be given voice if reconstruction&nbsp;is to be successful.</p> <p style="text-align: right;"><span style="color: #888888;">&ndash;G.W.</span></p>Policing the Shadows?2012-03-06T17:46:43Z<p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/s3/cache%2Fe5%2Fa2%2Fe5a250f8ff298e0f9cf0ef2919a72773.jpg" alt="" width="373" height="580" /></p> <blockquote> <p>One Nation Under&nbsp;Surveillance:&nbsp;A New Social Contract&nbsp;to Defend Freedom&nbsp;Without Sacrificing&nbsp;Liberty,&nbsp;Simon Chesterman,&nbsp;Oxford University Press,&nbsp;&pound;20.00</p> </blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span>A</span>ccording to leading legal scholar&nbsp;Simon Chesterman, we are now living&nbsp;in a &lsquo;post‑privacy world&rsquo;. Democratic&nbsp;governments enjoy access to more information&nbsp;about their constituents than at&nbsp;any point in human history. Traditional&nbsp;distinctions between &lsquo;unseemly&rsquo; but&nbsp;necessary foreign spying, and domestic&nbsp;surveillance, have been irrevocably&nbsp;eroded through a combination of&nbsp;&lsquo;forward-leaning&rsquo; counter-terrorism&nbsp;strategies, a revolution in communications&nbsp;technology, and an increasing&nbsp;public acquiescence to the sharing of&nbsp;personal data as daily routine. While&nbsp;battles continue to be waged over privacy,&nbsp;the war, we are told, will be lost.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In One Nation Under Surveillance, Chesterman&nbsp;turns instead to what he views&nbsp;as the more fundamental questions that&nbsp;we as a society must face. Namely, if&nbsp;data mining, biometric identification&nbsp;and the like are here to stay, should we&nbsp;not focus on how personal information&nbsp;is used, rather than distract ourselves&nbsp;with the minutiae of what is collected?&nbsp;More precisely, how can citizens ensure&nbsp;the public accountability of clandestine&nbsp;and insular intelligence services whose&nbsp;operations (and abuses) have traditionally&nbsp;been cloaked in secrecy? Unlike the&nbsp;production line of journalistic tomes&nbsp;contributing to a burgeoning post‑9/11&nbsp;&lsquo;brave new world&rsquo; literature, One Nation&nbsp;Under Surveillance is rich in theory and&nbsp;crafted with a scholarly eye. Chesterman&nbsp;concisely surveys the political history&nbsp;and jurisprudential treatment of&nbsp;intelligence activities, before providing&nbsp;an engaging comparative perspective&nbsp;on the flawed approaches pursued by&nbsp;the United States, United Kingdom and&nbsp;United Nations in recent times. The final section, however, is at once the book&rsquo;s&nbsp;most compelling, but brief, one. While&nbsp;the subtitle of One Nation Under Surveillance&nbsp;promises a &lsquo;new social contract&rsquo; to&nbsp;navigate the inherent and enduring tensions&nbsp;between security and liberty, Chesterman&nbsp;ultimately offers less a concrete&nbsp;proposal, and more a nuanced &ndash; yet realist&nbsp;&ndash; vision of the appropriate limits and&nbsp;role of government surveillance.</p> <p style="text-align: right;"><span style="color: #888888;">&mdash;A.K.</span></p>Back in the Subway2012-03-06T17:40:55Z<p><img style="vertical-align: top; display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/s3/cache%2F9e%2F4a%2F9e4a9b535ad85b46d24b58d523a3a9d0.jpg" alt="Back in the Subway" width="580" height="386" /></p> <blockquote> <p>Subway&nbsp;by Bruce Davidson, Steidl 48&euro;</p> </blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span>F</span>or several years now, publisher Steidl has been republishing&nbsp;photographers whose work, often out of print, represents a&nbsp;cornerstone in the story of photography and its dissemination.&nbsp;In this way, artists such as Robert Frank, William Eggleston or&nbsp;Lewis Baltz &ndash; who have always believed in the importance of&nbsp;publication in book form &ndash; have been able to bring their work&nbsp;to the public eye again. Now photographer Bruce Davidson&nbsp;will see his work reprinted. Following Circus, England/Scotland&nbsp;1960 and the magnificent collection Outside Inside, printed in&nbsp;2009, his series on the New York metro, Subway, has just been&nbsp;reissued.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">When Davidson carried out this work, in the early 80s, the&nbsp;New York subway was a dangerous place: no day passed without&nbsp;some act of aggression or violence. In the fine introductory&nbsp;text, the photographer explains how he prepared himself, like&nbsp;an athlete or explorer, to face any situation, to overcome fear&nbsp;and to venture out on the rail network well beyond Manhattan,&nbsp;through devastated or well-kempt neighborhoods. He describes&nbsp;the poverty, the unlikely encounters by day or by night, and&nbsp;how he dared to take pictures with flash amidst this human&nbsp;magma. Beyond the views and the voyage framed by the train&nbsp;windows, beyond the incredible presence of taggers&rsquo; graffiti&nbsp;dripping endlessly all over the carriages, Subway is a book portraying&nbsp;men and women, rich and poor, in a theatre that neutralizes&nbsp;all social differences.&nbsp;Davidson began the work in black and white, but, quickly&nbsp;struck by the combination of artificial light and metallic reflections&nbsp;from the surface of the train, was persuaded that the&nbsp;images required color. This is exceptional in his oeuvre.&nbsp;Subway is a rainbow ride from slums to city skyline. We&nbsp;encounter the human condition through a unique collection of&nbsp;portraits and attitudes, captured in the cool tones of the legendary&nbsp;kodachrome. Bruce Davidson remains faithful to the human&nbsp;commitment that drew him to photograph life in Harlem or the&nbsp;Civil Rights Movement &ndash; a story told by a perceptive and generous&nbsp;observer.</p> <p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/s3/cache%2Fbb%2F9e%2Fbb9e44ab00be5847f9029df1c3bac4d5.jpg" alt="" width="480" height="470" /></p> <p style="text-align: right;"><span style="color: #888888;">By B. F.</span></p>